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RNA 16, 239–50. Poly(A)-binding protein modulates mRNA susceptibility to cap-dependent miRNA-mediated repression. 2010

Walters, R.W., Bradrick, S.S. and Gromeier, M.

Notes: The authors investigated the mechanism of microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation of both endogenous mRNAs and artifical reporter constructs. To determine whether an m7G cap and poly(A) tail are required for repression, the authors created plasmids containing eight synthetic, tandem miR-30 recognition sequences in the 3´ untranslated region (UTR) of a Renilla luciferase gene under the control of a 5´UTR that confers either cap-dependent or cap-independent translation. They used these plasmids as a template for in vitro transcription, then transfected in vitro transcripts with and without an m7G cap and poly(A) tail into 293T cells, along with miR-30 miRNA (and miR-21 as a negative control). Similar experiments were performed by transfecting 293T cell with the Renilla luciferase constructs and miR-30 and miR-21 expression vectors. Finally, the authors exchanged the artificial 3´ UTR of the Renilla luciferase construct with the 3´ UTR of BACH1, a transcription factor that is regulated by miR-155, and cotransfected 293T cells with the BACH1 3´ UTR construct and an miR-115 expression vector to examine regulation via an endogenous 3´ UTR. The Promega Primer Extension System was used to compare miR-21, miR-30 and miR-155 RNA levels in transfected and untransfected 293T cells to determine endogenous levels of these miRNAs. Renilla luciferase activity was determined using the Renilla Luciferase Assay System. The authors used Northern blot analysis and quantitative RT-PCR to determine Renilla luciferase RNA levels (and GAPDH levels for normalization purposes). The Plexor® One-Step qRT-PCR System was used for qRT-PCR. (4048)

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Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 373, 48–52. Selection of mRNA 5´-untranslated region sequence with high translation efficiency through ribosome display. 2008

Mie, M., Shimizu, S., Takahashi, F. and Kobatake, E.

Notes: The authors developed an in vitro selection system that is based on ribosome display and favors identification of 5´-untranslated regions (UTRs) with high translation efficiencies. A 5´-UTR random library was created in which the 5´-UTRs were upstream of a polyhistidine-tag/Renilla luciferase-coding region. In vitro transcripts from this library were translated in vitro using the Flexi® Rabbit Reticulocyte Lysate System. The authors preferentially selected mRNAs with high translational efficiencies by shortening the translation time and capturing ternary complexes of mRNA, ribosome and nascent proteins. These complexes were captured using MagneHis™ Ni Particles. RNA was extracted from these complexes and used as a template in RT-PCR for the next round of selection. Before and after each round of selection, 9µl of RNA was translated in vitro, and 20µl of translated product was removed every 5 minutes to measure Renilla luciferase activity and monitor translation efficiency. Renilla luciferase was measured using the Renilla Luciferase Assay System. After two rounds of selection, RT-PCR products were cloned into a pUC18 vector, the sequences of the resulting plasmids were confirmed, and 0.5µg of plasmid was translated in vitro using the TNT® T7 Coupled Rabbit Reticulocyte Lysate System to further evaluate translation efficiency. (3963)

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Assay Drug Dev. Technol. 5, 127–136. Bioluminescent assays for high-throughput screening 2007

Fan, F. and Wood, K.V.

Notes: The authors of this paper review bioluminescent assay technologies, discussing HTS reporter, cell-based and luciferase biosensor assays. They divide luminescent assays into three basic categories: assays that measure ATP concentration (cell viability and kinase assays), assays that measure changes in luciferase levels (reporter assays, GPCR assays), and assays that measure changes in luciferin levels (protease [including caspase], P450 and MAO assays). (3737)

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J. Virol. 78 (11), 6048–6054. Cleavage inhibition of the murine coronavirus spike protein by a furin-like enzyme affects cell-cell but not virus-cell fusion. 2004

de Haan, C.A.M., Stadler, K., Godeke, G.J., Bosch, B.J. and Rottier, P.J.M.

Notes: The Renilla Luciferase Assay System was used to analyze mouse hepatitis coronavirus strain A59 (MHV-A59) entry in to cells. A mouse hepatitis coronavirus construct expressing Renilla luciferase was used to infect LR7 cells in the presence or absence of a Furin protease inhibitor. (3041)

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J. Biol. Chem. 278, 5659-5668. Transcriptional Regulation of the Rat NHE3 Gene. Functional Interactions between GATA-5 and Sp family transcription factors. 2003

Kiela, P.R., LeSueur, J., Collins, J.F. and Ghishan, F.K.

Notes: Researchers created promoter constructs in the pGL3-Basic vector to study NHE3 promoter function in cotransfection experiments with the pRL-null vector.  Transfected Caco-2 cells were analyzed by the Dual-Luciferase® Reporter Assay System. Beta-Galactosidase Assays were also performed on SL2 cells cotransfected with the pRL-null vector. The Renilla Luciferase Assay System was used to normalize these transfectants. (2642)

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